среда, 8 января 2014 г.

Antaryāmitva in Śrī Deśika’s Stotras – A Brief Study (M K Srinivasan)

Antaryāmitva in Śrī Deśika’s Stotras – A Brief Study (M K Srinivasan)

Among  the  five  modes  (prākāras)  of  Śrīman  Nārāyan‹a,  the  Para  and  Vyūha  forms  are transcendental. 

The Vibhava forms occur occasionally. 

The Arca forms are found in temples and are easily accessible to all. 

The Antaryāmin exists in every individual but generally remains unseen. 

According to the Nārāyana Anuvāka (12) 

the Antaryāmin Bhagavān resides in the tiny steady flame in the heart region. 

Sage Yājñavalkya describes Him in the Brihadāranyaka Upanishad (III:7:3) as follows.

He Who resides in the earth, within the earth, but Whom the earth is not aware of, Whose body the earth remains, directs the earth from within, is the inner self (ātmā), the Controller (antaryāmin) and He is immortal (amrtah).  

The sage makes the same statement indicating His presence in the remaining four elements, the five sense organs, sun, moon, stars, space, ether, light, darkness, individual soul, semen, mind, breath, all  beings,  etc.  

This  establishes  the  Brahman  as  the  Indwelling  Self  in  both  sentient  and  non- sentient entities who controls and rules them from within.  

Lord Krishna also says in the Bhagavad Gītā [X-20(a)]: “I am the Self residing in the hearts of all beings.”

The  Antaryāmin  can  be  perceived  only  through  intense  meditation.  

The  common  people  cannot visualise Him, much less express Him. 

Only seers, mystics and highly evolved souls can see Him. 

The  Ālvārs  have  perceived  Him  and  have  made  several  references  to  the  Antaryāmin  in  the Divyaprabandhas. A study of these references will be exhaustive. 

Svāmi Deśika also, in many of his stotras, has touched upon the Antaryāmin aspect besides the Arcā form. 

He has visualised Him in  a  rare  and  unusual  manner.  

A  study  of  his  rapturous  references  to  the  Antaryāmin  form  is  a highly rewarding exercise.

In his Śaranāgati Dīpikā (21), Śrī Deśika outlines how seers are able to perceive the divine form of 
the Lord within them through the practice of ashtānga yoga.

Through  practising  yama  and  niyama,  good  men  purify  and  control  their  minds.  By  performing āsana and pranāyāma, they achieve pratyāhāra (turn their senses inward). 

These enable them to focus  their  minds  (dhāranfia)  on  the  Lord’s  form  within.  The  next  step  is  continuous  and uninterrupted  meditation  on  Him  (dhyāna)  which  ultimately  takes  them  to  the  state  of  beatific composure (samādhi).  

Śrī Deśika refers to types of samādhi – savikalpa and nirvikalpa. 

In the first state, the person gets to see on his mental screen the Image of the Lord of his choice which, when continuously practised, leads to the second where the Lord’s infinite svarūpa appears.  

While  the  above-mentioned  verse  outlines  the  general  process  of  ‘seeing’  the  Antaryāmin  form, Svāmi Deśika points out in verse 21 of Śrī Varadarāja Pañcāśat that the Lord Himself, out of His own volition, chooses to reside in the hearts of men.

Śrī  Deśika  wonders  why  the  small  aperture  of  the  human  heart  is  chosen  by  Him  to  reside,  in preference  to  other  grander  areas  such  as  the  Milky  Ocean,  the  bejewelled  canopied  hall  in Śrīvaikuntha, etc. where He can dwell comfortably. 

This is obviously because of His immense love and compassion for His devotees. 

Later on, in the same hymn, in verse 33, Śrī Deśika brings out the benefit to human beings of the Lord’s residence in their hearts as Antaryāmin. 

But for the grace and kindness of the Lord as the In-dweller (antaryāmin) which has impelled them to come closer, men would have ever remained aloof and distant from Him. 

This is a fact. 

Thus the Antaryāmin Bhagavān is a ‘cementing force’ between man and God, says Svāmi Deśika.  

Another benefit is mentioned in verse 14 of the Hayagrīva Stotra. 

Śrī Deśika says that he who enshrines Lord Hayagrīva (the royal Swan) in his mind (mental lake) will acquire mastery in all subjects, which will vie with one another to serve him.   

Now, to become aware of the Antaryāmin and to perceive Him is a hard and arduous task. It is not given  to  everyone  to  do  so.  

But  here  is  an  assurance  given  by  Śrī  Deśika  in  Bhagavad-dhyāna Sopāna  (verse  1)  to  those  who  cannot  go  through  the  strenuous  process  to  visualise  Him.  He  is available so near and for all to see.       

Śrī Deśika says that the indwelling form of the Lord which can be seen only by seers is appearing in a visible concrete form at Śrīrangam. 

Like a collyrium which, when applied to the eyes, enables a person to see hidden objects, like the gem cintāmanfii fulfilling hearts’ desires, like a divine eye among Vedic scriptures, Lord Ranganātha, the Supreme among celestials, has taken residence here to eradicate the sorrows and grant liberation to the helpless and forlorn beings.  

Thus Śrī Deśika brings solace to the common people who are unable to perceive the Antaryāmi Bhagavān in them. 

They can easily fill their minds and hearts with the sight of Lord Ranganātha and get the same beatific feeling.  
A study of the Antaryāmin form in Śrī Deśika’s stotras will not be complete without a reference to some unique forms of the Lord that he perceives in his mind. 
Though, strictly speaking, they do not conform to the Antaryāmin form, they are highly imaginative expressions indicative of Śrī Deśika’s devotion and desire to see Him in many forms.  

First, in the Varadarāja Pañcāśat (verse 47) he prays to Lord Varadarāja as follows.  

(O Varada! May You ever stay in my mind just as You get up at daybreak from Your Couch of Ādiśesa adorned by the imprint of Goddess Lakshmī’s golden bangles on Your neck caused by Her close embrace.)  

What an unusual prayer! 

Only a highly mystic person or a divinely inspired poet like Śrī Deśika can stretch his vision to such heights. With the richness of its imagery and high philosophical import, it is no wonder that this verse is recited as the awakening song (suprabhātam) at the Lord’s temple at Kāñcīpuram.  

Another interesting and unusual form which Śrī Deśika envisages is found in the Vegāsetu Stotra (verse 4). 

This hymn is on Lord Vegāsetu, who is better known as Lord Yathoktakāri or ‘One who acts as bidden’. 

The former name Vegāsetu has arisen because He is supposed to have laid Himself across the river Vegavatī, the form taken by Goddess Sarasvatī who was separated from Brahma due to a misunderstanding, to flood the site where he wanted to perform an aśvamedha sacrifice. 

Here is the verse in reference.

Śrī Deśika desires to keep in his mind the recumbent form of the Lord lying across the river in spate and Who thus enabled Brahmā’s sacrifice to proceed without let or hindrance.  

Elsewhere, Śrī Deśika proclaims that this form is a bridge to cross the ocean of worldy existence and would put an end to the ‘comings and goings of people in this world’.

A third rare picturisation of the Lord in Śrī Deśika’s mind is given in verse 3 of the Paramārtha Stuti, a stotra in praise of Lord Vijayarāghava at Tirupputkuli (near Kāñcī). Let us enjoy the verse. 

Śrī  Deśika  prays  to  the  Lord  to  let  his  mind  be  filled  with  His  beauteous  form  adorned  with ornaments and weapons (astras) and which is seen by His Consorts with unblinking eyes. 

It is seen here that Śrī Deśika envisions young Lord Rāma during the few moments when He was adorned by innumerable astras which He acquired on initiation from sage Viśvāmitra and before He gave them leave to go. 

A prayer for a very unusual and rarely seen form indeed.  

The  most  picturesque  and  enduring  of  these  imagined  forms  of  the  Lord  occurs  in  the  Gopāla Vimśati (verse 14).

Śrī  Deśika  wonders  which  sculptor  has  engraved  in  his  heart  the  picture  of  this  Youth  with  a peacock feather on his head and Whose face is like a sun unto the lotuses of the lovelorn Gopis’ faces.

Śrī Deśika’s fondness for this rare form is seen in another verse (12) of the hymn where he prays that his mind should remember His playful form even on his last journey.  

(May  His  iridiscent  blue  form  like  a  cut  sapphire,  wearing  a  tiara  of  colourful  peacock  feathers framing the curly black tresses on His head and playing on a bejewelled flute lightly sitting on His lips appear as I prepare to leave this world.)  

One can only bow down one’s head in utter reverence to Svāmi Deśika for his vivid portrayals of the indwelling Lord in such inimitable fashion. 

It can perhaps be said that this is an exhibition of another कृष्ण तृष्णा तत्तव (kRRiShNa tRRiShNA tattava), no less significant than that of Śrī Nammālvār who was utterly devoted to Lord Krishna. 

This  humble  piece  is  offered  at  the  feet  of  Bhāgavatas  who  are  appreciative  readers  of  Śrī 
Ranganātha Pādukā. In fact, the subject merits a more elaborate treatment at the hands of scholars. 

 Śrīmate Nigamāta Mahādeśikāya Namah 

Temples and PanchaRatra

It is well known that the ancient Temples or Bhagwan Shri Ranganatha in Shrirangakshetra (Tamil Nadu), Bhagwan Narayana Swami in Melkote (Kamataka) and Bhagwan Varadaraja in Kanchipuram (Tamil Nadu) are built as per the Pancharatra Agamas. 

Even today in the:

RANGANATH TEMPLE all rituals are performed according to Paushkara and Parameshwara Samhita and in the

VARADANATH TEMPLE as per Jayakhya and Padma Samhita, while the

NARAYANA SWAMI TEMPLE follows the rituals prescribed in Sattvata and Ishwara Samhita.

Throughout the year we observe the Pancharatra Agamas being practised here.

Incredibly Great Table from "Shree Sankarshana Samhita"


Moreover, a Manuscript of The "Shree Lakshmi-Tantra" is found in one of the oldest libraries of Gujarat


Spread of Pancharatra Agamas in India


In Gujarat many Manuscripts, Images, Temples and Inscriptions of Vaishnavism based on Pancharatra Agamas are found. 

The Oriental Institute of the M.S. University has vast number of manuscripts of Pancharatra Agamas. 

In Rajasthan's Indological Institute of Udaipur there is a bunch of Pancharatra Manuscripts, bearing serial no. 200, written in the Devanagari script, on the palm-leaf material which consists of 86 folios, each measuring 14" x 7". 

And on the front page there is a statement in Gujarati by the scribe Gopiram, "from folio 51, one adhyaya is missing". 

The manuscripts are of 1818 CE. 
Moreover, a Manuscript of The "Shree Lakshmi-Tantra" is found in one of the oldest libraries of Gujaratnamely Dahilakshmi Library, Nadiad.


DOWNLOAD (Sanskrit with English Exordia):

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The Masterpiece Edition from Shree SwamiNarayan Sampradaya. 

English Exordia is on the page 36. 

Всё для любимой жены

Я всё время думаю над тем как Кришна заранее всю мою жизнь устроил, чтобы я жил (жила, смотрите текст "In Our Tradition we adore..." справа) не напрягаясь, а именно:

А) Кришна настроил вокруг кучу магазинов (есть даже индийский в 6 минутах от дома, что является чудом для Москвы). В этом году Кришна даже построил огромный "Перекресток", по которому я скитаюсь словно призрак. 

Б) С детства поселил меня жить прямо рядом с парком, чтобы не повредить мои лёгкие. 

Кстати, парк мне очень пригодился, потому что по нему удобно скитаться, повторяя Мантры. 

У меня в гороскопе даже есть особенное сочетание грах, которое указывает на то, что я буду Вайшнава-Бхактом, который будет знать очень много Кришна-Мантр и будет скитаться по лесам.

В) Кришна даровал мне рождение именно в ту эпоху, в которую мои Меркурианские наклонности (изучение языков и Вайшнавских Книг) смогли раскрыться в экстремальной степени. 

Если бы я даже родился на 10 лет раньше, то всё было бы намного хуже, потому что ещё лет 10 назад возможностей для образования и обучения было очень немного. Нормальные Книги на Санскрите и Хинди стали появляться на archive.org и в Интернете только где-то с 2011 года. 

Я просто молюсь на сайт sadagopan.org, на котором Рамануджа-Сампрадайи размещает настолько бесценные Книги Шри Шримад Веданта Десики, что становится понятно, что я родился в Сатья-Югу. 
А уж на тему того как Кришна избаловал меня по всяким мелочам можно писать массивные трактаты. 
Кришна трясётся надо мной и постоянно защищает, также как и всех остальных девчонок, которых он собрал здесь для прогресса в "Кали-Югу" (на самом деле для нас всех сейчас идёт Сверх-Сатья-Юга). 

Кришна-Мандир и Кришна-пломбир

В "Перекрёстке" продаётся очень дешёвый пломбир. 

Этот пломбир очень удобно использовать как основу для более сложного мороженого. 

Справа -  вишнёвый сироп и малиновое варенье, которые превратят обычный пломбир в очень яркий ягодный торт-мороженое. 

New bamboo boxes, purchased in one of our warehouse shops

I loved these boxes very much. I have a lot of Ipods (original and clones), so I will keep them in the boxes, because I lose some gadgets very often. 

Новый блокнот (замена для Evernote)

New Notepad. The colour is Red, so I could remember the ideas about The Fury of Shreemati Veera Lakshmi-Devi and Shreemati Durga-Devi all the time. 

Ура, новый блокнот. Цвет - Красный в честь Ярости Шримати Вира-Лакшми и Шримати Дурги-Деви.