NOTE FOR A READER: THIS ARTICLE EXPLAINS SHREE RAMANUJA-SIDDHANTA AND INTENDED FOR PRAPANNAS FROM SHREE RAMANUJA-VAISHNAVA-SAMPRADAYA.
Question: "I got interested in Karttika-Vrata, so I have been reading Karttika-Masa-Mahatmya from "Shree Skanda-Purana" recently. While reading I have stumbled upon very strange verses prescribing Panchayatana Worship (that is "all in one" 5-folded mayavadik worship - Vishnu, Shiva, Devi, Ganesha, Surya) for Karttika-Vrata.
I am baffled by these verses, because it always seemed to me that Vaishnavas must shun Panchayatana worship at any cost, because Panchayatana = mayavadic = for smarta brahmins (mayavadis, smartas). Could you please comment?".
Answer by Vishnudut1926: "Shree Skanda-Purana" is a Tamasika-Purana, so it is extremely corrupted by mayavada pramanas (the so-called "mohana" pramanas intended for plunging asuras into delusion). You can trust pramanas from "Shree Skanda-Puranas" only whenthey are confirmed by Pramanas from Sattvika Vaishnava-Puranas.
Let's look at tamasika Panchayatana verse at first, it is from "Shree Skanda-Purana", Karttika-Mahatmya, 3.16:
भास्कर उवाच अहं विष्णुश्च शर्वश्चदेवीविघ्नेश्वरस्तथा एकोऽहं पञ्चधाजातोनट्येसूत्रधरो यथ - bhAskara uvAcha ahaM viShNushcha sharvashchadevIvighneshvarastathA eko.ahaM pa~nchadhAjAtonaTyesUtradharo yatha - Bhaskara (Surya-devata) said: "Me (Surya), Bhagavan Shree Vishnu, Sharva (Shiva), Devi and Ganesha must be worshipped during Karttika-Vrata. I am actually One, but I assume these 5 forms as an actor playing on stage".
The further verses are in the same vein, but they are not worthy to be cited due to mayavadik contamination.
Now let's refute these false tamasika "pramanas" about Panchayatana with the true Sattvika-Vaishnava Pramanas. Let's establish a solid Pramanika bedrock at first:
"Shree Garuda-Purana", Moksha-Khanda, 1.42 says कलौ युगे सर्व पुराणमध्ये त्रीण्येव मुख्यानि हरिप्रियाणि - kalau yuge sarva purANamadhye trINyeva mukhyAni haripriyANi
"In Kali-Yuga only 3 Puranas must be completely trusted, because only these 3 Puranas are dear to Bhagavan Shree Vishnu: "Shree Bhagavata-Purana", "Shree Vishnu-Purana" and "Shree Garuda-Purana".
All other Puranas are not Sattvika, they are contaminated by Rajas and Tamas, that's why they cause sufferings and should not be preached".
"Shree Vishnu-Dharmottara-Purana" is also completely trustworthy, because "Shree Garuda-Purana", Moksha-Khanda, 1.57 says - विष्णुधर्मोतरं चैव तन्त्रं भागवतं तथा - viShNudharmotaraM chaiva tantraM bhAgavataM tathA - "Shree Vishnu-Dharmottara is to be trusted in the same extent as "Shree Bhagavata-Purana" and "Shree Vishnu-Purana".
So, the Pramanika foundation is established, now let's look at anti-Panchayatana Pramanas.
When you refute mayavadik Panchayatana, you should use "Shree Bhagavad-Gita", 9.25 - in this Verse Bhagavan Shree Krishna says that all the vratas, dedicated to various devas are actually futile, because such vratas always result into rebirths within sansara.
I will cite this Pramana further, but at the beginning let's fortify our logic chain with the additional Sattvika Pramanas both from Vedas and Puranas:
1. "Shree Garuda-Purana", Moksha-Khanda, 1.18 - नास्ति नारायणसमं न भूतं न भविष्यति एतेन सत्यवाक्येन सर्वार्थान्साधयाम्यहम् - nAsti nArAyaNasamaM na bhUtaM na bhaviShyati etena satyavAkyena sarvArthAnsAdhayAmyaham - "Never existed a devata equal to Bhagavan Shree Narayana and never will exist such a devata in the future, because Bhagavan Shree Narayana is ParaBrahman".
2. "Shree Vishnu-Purana", 2.7.40 - स च विष्णुः परं ब्रह्म - sa cha viShNuH paraM brahma - "Only Bhagavan Shree Vishnu is ParaBrahman".
3. "Shree MahaNarayana-Upanishad" (from YajurVeda), 9.4 - नारायणः परं ब्रह्म तत्त्वं नारायणः परः - nArAyaNaH paraM brahma tattvaM nArAyaNaH paraH - "Bhagavan Shree Narayana is ParaBrahman".
4. "Shree Bhagavata-Purana", 2.5.15-16 - नारायणपरा वेदा देवा नारायणाङ्गजाः नारायणपरा लोका नारायणपरा मखाः नारायणपरो योगो नारायणपरं तपः नारायणपरं ज्ञानं नारायणपरा गतिः - nArAyaNaparA vedA devA nArAyaNA~NgajAH nArAyaNaparA lokA nArAyaNaparA makhAH nArAyaNaparo yogo nArAyaNaparaM tapaH nArAyaNaparaM j~nAnaM nArAyaNaparA gatiH
"All Vedas actually sing only about Bhagavan Shree Narayana. All existing devas and Avataras originate from Bhagavan Shree Narayana" (see the beautiful Sanskrit of this verse for its better understanding).
5. "Shree Bhagavad-Gita", 9.25 - यान्ति देवव्रता देवान्पितॄन्यान्ति - yAnti devavratA devAnpitR^InyAnti - "Those, who adhere to various deva-vratas, go to various deva-lokas. Only My prapannas (that is Shree Narayana prapannas) can reach Me".
Please pay attention to the expression "devavratA" in the very last Pramana from "Shree Bhagavad-Gita". In this Pramana Bhagavan Shree Krishna actually refutes Panchayatana.
Logically this Verse means, that if you worship any devata, but not Bhagavan Shree Narayana (Shree Krishna), you will just reach a certain deva-loka - for example, Surya-Loka or Shiva-Loka within sansara.
For this reason "Shree Vishnu-Purana", 1.4.18 says - वासुदेवम् अनाराध्य को मोक्षं समवाप्स्यति - vAsudevam anArAdhya ko mokShaM samavApsyati - "Mukti is impossible without Bhagavan Shree Vasudeva adoration".
"Shree Garuda-Purana", Moksha-Khanda, 1.36 says - ये वैष्णवा वैष्ण वदासभृत्याः सर्वेपि ते सर्वदा विष्णुमेव - ye vaiShNavA vaiShNa vadAsabhRRityAH sarvepi te sarvadA viShNumeva - "A true Vaishnava adores Bhagavan Shree Vishnu only and never looks at any other devatas".
So, the worship of various devas and Panchayatana just result into rebirths in sansara, sufferings and contradicts to true Sattvika Vaishnavism".
Question: "Understood, but one more question, just out of curiosity. What if I worship Bhagavan Shree Narayana (Shree Krishna, Shree Vishnu) + any other devata/devatas? For example, Krishna + Shiva or Vishnu + Surya + Ganesha?"
Answer by Vishnudut1926: "You can't hold 2, 3 or more Ishta-Devatas in your heart - हृदि यदि भगवान् अनादिर् आस्ते हरिर् - hRRidi yadi bhagavAn anAdir Aste harir - "A true Vaishnava holds only Bhagavan Shree Hari in his heart" as "Shree Vishnu-Purana", 3.7.27 says.
And विष्णुर् एकः परायणः - viShNur ekaH parAyaNaH - "A true Vaishnava surrenders to Bhagavan Shree Vishnu only (EKAH)" as "Shree Vishnu-Purana", 1.17.70 states.
So, Panchayatana is forbidden in any Vaishnava-Vrata and in Karttika-Vrata particularly. Panchayatana system of worship is tamasika, mayavadika and asuric, that's why it is mentioned in tamasika "Shree Skanda-Purana".
Question: "Roger that! There is also a very strange chapter about Shreemati Satyabhama-Devi in Karttika-Masa-Mahatmya of "Shree Skanda-Purana".
This chapter claims that Shreemati Satyabhama-Devi was an ordinary mortal in Her previous life, though we all perfectly know, that Shreemati Satyabhama-Devi is actually Shree MahaLakshmi-Devi. Could you please clarify this bizzare "mortal" story?"
Answer by Vishnudut1926: "The same case as with the above-mentioned Panchayatana - just an asuric, mohana "pramana". Let's replace this false "pramana" with Sattvika Pramanas from Sattvika Vaishnava Puranas.
1. "Shree Garuda-Purana", Moksha-Khanda, 16.1-13 says महालक्ष्म्याः स्वरूपं च अवतारान्खगेश्वर...रुक्मिणीसत्यभामा च भार्ये कृष्णस्य कीर्तिते - mahAlakShmyAH svarUpaM cha avatArAnkhageshvara...rukmiNIsatyabhAmA cha bhArye kRRiShNasya kIrtite
"Shreemati Rukmini-Devi and Shreemati Satyabhama-Devi are Avataras of Shreemati MahaLakshmi-Devi. Avataras of Shree MahaLakshmi-Devi are numerous and you should not make distinctions between Them, considering a certain Avatara to be superior over other Avataras. All Avataras of Shreemati MahaLakshmi-Devi are equal". (This Pramana is from the Chapter called "Avataras of Shreemati MahaLakshmi-Devi).
2. "Shree Vishnu-Purana", 5.29.34 says - आरोपयाम् आस हरिर् गरुडे पतगेश्वरे आरुह्य च स्वयं कृष्णः सत्यभामासहायवान् - AropayAm Asa harir garuDe patageshvare Aruhya cha svayaM kRRiShNaH satyabhAmAsahAyavAn - "Bhagavan Shree Krishna (Shree Hari) and Shree Satyabhama had mounted Garuda".
This Pramana from "Shree Vishnu-Purana" illustrates the Highest Status of Shreemati Satyabhama-Devi, because only Shreemati MahaLakshmi-Devi is entitled to sit on Shree Garuda together with Lord Shree Krishna (Lord Shree Hari).
3. The same Pramana can be found in "Shree Bhagavata-Purana", 10.59.03 - स-भार्यो गरुडारूढः - sa-bhAryo garuDArUDhaH - "Bhagavan Shree Krishna and His Wife (Shreemati Satyabhama-Devi) mounted Garuda".
4. Besides, OM VishnuPad Shree MadhvAcharya writes in "Shree MahaBharata-Tatparya-Nirnaya", 20.60 - भैष्मी सत्या चैकतनुर्द्विधैव जाता भूमौ प्रकृतिर्मूलभूता - bhaishhmI satyA chaikatanurdvidhaiva jAtA bhUmau prakR^itirmUlabhUtA - "Shreemati Rukmini-Devi and Shreemati Satyabhama-Devi are actually Shree MahaLakshmi-Devi".
Question: "Understood, thank you for the explanation. "Shree Skanda-Purana" seems to be utterly contaminated by mayavada and tamasika rants. Now I have doubts about the validity of Karttika-Vrata itself!
I mean it seems to be Tamasika vrata from Tamasika Purana. Why any Sattvika Vaishnava should follow to such a tamasika vrata at all?".
Answer by Vishnudut1926: "Actually, 3 modes of Karttika-Vrata exist and they differ from each other. Let's look at the division:
MODE 1 - SATTVIKA. It is from "Shree Garuda-Purana", Chapter 123 from Achara-Khanda. This Chapter prescribes Sattvika mode of Karttika-Vrata for Sattvika Vaishnavas.
This mode is based on Shree Narayana-Mantra (Shree Ashtakshara-Mantra) and Vasudeva-Mantras - ॐ नमो वासुदेवाय घृतव्रीहितिलादिकम् अष्टाक्षरेण मन्त्रेण - OM namo vAsudevAya ghRRitavrIhitilAdikam aShTAkShareNa mantreNa as "Shree Garuda-Purana", Achara-Khanda, 123.7 says.
It consists of offering Archanas to various Angas of Bhagavan Shree Vishnu' Body at certain days of Karttika: on the 1st day you should worship the Feet of Bhagavan Shree Vishnu with lotuses, on the 2nd day - the Knees of Bhagavan Shree Vishnu with bilva leaves and etc.
Target audience: purely Sattvika Vaishnavas.
MODE 2 - RAJASIKA. It is from "Shree Padma-Purana", Uttara-Khanda, Chapters 90-166. It is all about Rajasika mode of worship. This Karttika mode is heavily connected with Shree Radha-Damodara worship, because the preceding Khanda of "Shree Padma-Purana" (Patala-Khanda) is dedicated to Shree Radha-Krishna Cult.
Whenever you study "Shree Padma-Purana", you should remember the caution told by "Shree Garuda-Purana", Moksha-Khanda, 1.53 - स्कान्दं पाद्मं वामनं वै वराहं तथाग्रेयं भविष्यं पर्वसृष्टौ एतान्याहू राजसानीति विप्रास्तत्रैकदेशः सात्त्विकस्तामसश्च - skAndaM pAdmaM vAmanaM vai varAhaM tathAgreyaM bhaviShyaM parvasRRiShTau etAnyAhU rAjasAnIti viprAstatraikadeshaH sAttvikastAmasashcha
"Skanda, Padma, Vamana, Varaha, Agni, Bhavishya - these Puranas are contaminated by Rajas and Tamas".
For this reason "Shree Padma-Purana" prescribes typical rajasika ingredients for Karttika - a lot of singing, sankirtans, dancing before Murti Bhagavan Shree Vishnu, flower pujas, not sleeping a whole night, a lot of food restrictions for rajasika persons (not eating onion, garlic, meat) and etc.
In "Shree Padma-Purana" the rules for Karttika-Vrata are pronounced by Narada-Muni, because Rajasika "Shree Padma-Purana" is connected with Rajasika "Shree Narada-PanchaRatra".
So, Karttika-Vrata from "Shree Padma-Purana" deviates from pure Sattvika Vaishnavism.
For example, "Shree Padma-Purana", Uttara-Khanda 92.16 prescribes worship of Vishnu along with Shiva and going to Shiva Mandirs, which is extremely against pure Vaishnava-Siddhanta and pure Shree Ramanuja-Siddhanta particularly, because visiting any Shiva Mandir is devatAntara-sambandha for any serious Vaishnava from Shree Ramanuja-Sampradaya.
Target audience: rajasika and tamasika Vaishnavas, mainly Shree Radha-Krishna bhaktas.
MODE 3 - TAMASIKA. It is from "Shree Skanda-Purana", Vaishnava-Khanda, Karttika-Masa-Mahatmya. It is heavily contaminated by mayavada, Panchayatana and other asuric (demonic) gibberish.
It repeats "Shree Padma-Purana", but contains more deluding, tamasik and mayavadik pramanas like, for example, Panchayatana pramana we have refuted at the beginning of our talk.
It prescribes Shree Radha-Damodara worship in Karttika, because verse 3.17 says राधादामोदरः पूज्यः कार्त्तिके तु विशेषतः - rAdhAdAmodaraH pUjyaH kArttike tu visheShataH - "Shree RadhaDamodara (that is Shreemati Radharani-Devi and Shree DamodaraKrishna) must be especially worshipped during Karttika".
The subsequent Khandas, especially Bhagavata-Khanda-Mahatmya and Vasudeva-Mahatmya of "Shree Skanda-Purana", are dedicated to Shreemati Radharani-Devi, Shree Krishna, Goloka, VrajaBhumi-Mahatmya and simple Bhakti for masses.
Karttika-Mahatmya from "Shree Skanda-Purana" also contains a lot of stories about people from lower social stratas: fallen brahmins, fowlers, hunters, cowherds, women with waspish characters and etc.
For example, one story goes like this: a brahmin used to steal from Ahobilam NaraSimha, was punished by 100 births in a body of chandala and could eliminate his sins only thanks to Karttika-Vrata. And etc. and etc.
Then, another distinctive feature: Karttika-Mahatmya from "Shree Skanda-Purana" has HariNama-upayas for extremely poor and outcast people, who can't follow to Karttika-Vrata at all - the only wayout for them is just to repeat HariNama during Karttika - by repeating various Names of Bhagavan Shree Hari they can obtain full benefit of Karttika (Verses 1.42-45).
Verse 2.18 in Karttika-Mahatmya of "Shree Skanda-Purana" prescribes meat and liquor avoidance during Karttika-Vrata, so simply judging by this prescription and poverty prescriptions you can understand for what kind of people Karttika-Vrata from "Shree Skanda-Purana" broadcasts its stories.
Target audience: tamasika Vaishnavas, following to Shree Radha-Krishna Cults with simplified Hari-Bhakti and HariNama-Bhakti for masses + non-Vaishnavas and common people from lower social stratas, following to various vratas occasionally + smarta-brahmins (due to karma-kanda and Panchayatana allusions).
Question: "Got it! Then another question, it is about Mukti and Kaveri river. Not only me, but other readers of Karttika-Mahatmya from "Shree Skanda-Purana" have noticed Pramana about Kaveri in the English edition, which sounds like this:
"If in the month of Karttika a person just wishes to take his holy bath in Kaveri, he will be liberated from all sins by that itself and he will attain Sayujya with (i.e. absorption into) Vishnu". Is this Pramana a mohana one?"
Answer by Vishnudut1926: "Not mohana, but अधिकवाक्योक्ति (adhikavAkyokti - "exaggeration") in order to glorify Kaveri river.
This Pramana is also present in the Sanskrit edition, sounds like this - कार्त्तिके मासि कावेर्यां यः स्नानं कर्तुमिच्छति तावता वै विमुक्ताऽघो विष्णुसायुज्यमाप्नुयात् - kArttike mAsi kAveryAM yaH snAnaM kartumichChati tAvatA vai vimuktA.agho viShNusAyujyamApnuyAt
We all love Kaveri, but unfortunately this Pramana is NOT in accordance with Shree Ramanuja-Siddhanta, because only Shreemati MahaLakshmi-Devi knows Mukti time for every jiva - अहमेव हि जानामि शक्तिपातक्षणं च तम् नासौ पुरुषकारेण न चाप्यन्येन हेतुना - ahameva hi jAnAmi shaktipAtakShaNaM cha tam nAsau puruShakAreNa na chApyanyena hetunA as Shreemati MahaLakshmi-Devi says in "Shree Lakshmi-Tantra", 13.10.
So, one can't just plunge into Kaveri during Karttika and wait for Mukti afterwards. Mukti depends upon Shreemati MahaLakshmi-Devi and Bhagavan Shree Narayana, not upon jiva's efforts - thus our Shree Ramanuja-Siddhanta states!
Question: "Roger that! OK, I have one more dubious Pramana, it sounds like this "ShreeKrishna had followed to Karttika-Vrata for the sake of love".
I mean verse 3.14 from the English edition by Motilal Banasirdass, it sounds like this: "This Karttika-Vrata was observed by Yudhisthira for the sake of virtue (Dharma), by Dhruva for the sake of wealth, by ShreeKrishna for the sake of love and by Narada for the sake of salvation. Hence it is (this Vrata) very excellent and a favourite of Krishna".
What is meant by "Shree Krishna for the sake of love" expression in the English translation?"
Answer by Vishnudut1926: "Let's look at the original Sanskrit version of this verse - युधिष्ठिरेण धर्मार्थमर्थार्थं च ध्रुवेण च श्रीकृष्णेन तु कामार्थं मोक्षार्थं नारदेन च - yudhiShThireNa dharmArthamarthArthaM cha dhruveNa cha shrIkRRiShNena tu kAmArthaM mokShArthaM nAradena cha - "Shree Krishna follows to Karttika-Vrata for the sake of kama, while Narada follows for the sake of Moksha".
The preceding verse in Sanskrit says न कार्त्तिकसमं काम्यं मोक्षदानं - na kArttikasamaM kAmyaM mokShadAnaM - "No other month can be compared to Karttika in granting quick kama-siddhi (that is fullfillment of all the wishes) and moksha-siddhi".
So, the original word in Sanskrit is "काम - kAma". This pramana can be explained in 3 ways, all of them contradict to Shree Ramanuja-Siddhanta, I will enumerate them just for the information:
Explanation 1 (Krishna-Tantras oriented). This Pramana is not for Sattvika Vaishnavas, it is actually for various tantriks and rajasika/tamasika Vaishnavas, who follow to various Krishna-Tantras and Gopala-sadhanas from "Shree Sharada-Tilaka-Tantra", "Shree Narada-PanchaRatra" and etc.
In such Tantras Shree Krishna is always connected with Kama-Gayatri and "KLIM"-bija (a Tantrik bija, fulfilling all the wishes).
Explanation 2 (Shakta-oriented). This "kama" pramana is also for Shaktas, but in this case you will have to shift to "Shree Radha-Tantra" (a Shakta Tantra dedicated to MahaVidyas), "Shree Devi-Bhagavata-Purana" and other Shakta-oriented Tantras, which usually proclaim Shree Krishna to be a Shakta-upasaka, who follows to various Shakti-Vidyas for various siddhis.
From a Shakta point of view during Karttika-Masa Bhagavan Shree Vishnu (Bhagavan Shree Krishna) always follows to Shree Tulasi-Vrata, because Shree Tulasi-Devi leaves Him due to the quarrel with Shreemati Saraswati-Devi.
Bhagavan Shree Vishnu suffers severely because of His separation (viraha) from Shreemati Tulasi-Devi, so He starts serious Tulasi-upasana in order to fulfill his desire (kama) for getting Shreemati Tulasi-Devi back.
If you are interested in this story you can refer to "Shree Devi-Bhagavata-Purana" and to the following article of mine - #RARE SHREE TULASI-SADHANA FROM "SHREEMAD DEVI-BHAGAVATAM"
Explanation 3 (insanely mayavadik and asuric). According to this explanation Shree Krishna is just Saguna-Brahman, who is under the veil of Maya and He has sansarik wishes (kama) and etc. and etc. Typical insane and mayavadik gibberish.
As I said earlier, all these 3 explanations are out of Shree Ramanuja-Siddhanta, so we just should ignore this "KrishnaKama" verse from "Shree Skanda-Purana", it is for rajasika/tamasika tantriks and mayavadis".
Question: "By the way, speaking about Avataras of Bhagavan Shree Narayana and our Adored Shree VenkatEshvara Archa-Avatara (Shree BalaJi). "Shree Venkatachala-Mahatmya" is also from "Shree Skanda-Purana". Is it a mohana one?"
Answer by Vishnudut1926: "Bhagavan Shree VenkatEshvara (Shree BalaJi) system of worship is actually from Moksha-Khanda of "Shree Garuda-Purana", that is from purely Sattvika Vaishnava Purana.
"Shree Venkatachala-Mahatmya" from "Shree Skanda-Purana" plays a complementary role and it is not a mohana one.
So, our principal Venkateshvara-Siddhanta originates from Moksha-Khanda of "Shree Garuda-Purana"!
Question: "Great! It'a a bliss to hear this! Could you please also comment on the very bizzare story from one of the last Chapters of Karttika-Mahatmya of "Shree Skanda-Purana"?
I mean Vaikuntha-Chaturdashi Chapter. In this weird chapter Bhagavan Shree Vishnu starts to worship Shiva with 1000 Lotuses, then finds out that He has only 999 lotuses and plucks his eye out in order to offer the eye to Shiva instead of a missing lotus (because Lord Shree Vishnu is Lotus-Eyed)"!
Answer by Vishnudut1926: "A typical offensive and sentimental tamasika story from a typical tamasika Purana. There is actually nothing to comment and refute, because this humbug story refutes itself by its own absurdity.
OK, I presume, enough tamasika pramanas and childish horror stories from Tamasika Puranas for today. To sum up:
1. Karttika Vrata originates mainly from Tamasika "Shree Skanda-Purana" and Rajasika "Shree Padma-Purana": these variants are not suitable for following by Sattvika Vaishnavas from Shree Ramanuja-Sampradaya.
2. Nevertheless, there is a Sattvika variant of Karttika-Vrata from "Shree Garuda-Purana", which is suitable for Vaishnavas from our Sampradaya (Shree Ramanuja-Sampradaya).
Sattvika variant may be followed, but not as an upaya for Mukti, kamya rites and etc., because Shreemati MahaLakshmi-Devi proclaims the following Highest Siddhanta in "Shree Lakshmi-Tantra", 17.58:
ऊर्ध्वं नयन्त्युपायास्तं य एनाननुवर्तते उपायापायसंत्यागी मध्यमां वृत्तिमाश्रितः - UrdhvaM nayantyupAyAstaM ya enAnanuvartate upAyApAyasaMtyAgI madhyamAM vRRittimAshritaH
"True Sattvika Vaishnavism is the total abandonment of all upayas (selfish vratas, kamya-karma) and all apayas (behaviour breaching Vaishnava-Shastras)".
Answers, translations of Pramanas from Sanskrit-Hindi to English
by Vishnudut1926, Moscow, October 2018